PST They were primarily used for removing wire obstacles, etc.
Description[ edit ] Mines can be laid in many ways: They can be inexpensive: British Mk 14 sea mine Their flexibility and cost-effectiveness make mines attractive to the less powerful belligerent in asymmetric warfare. The cost of producing and laying a mine is usually between 0.
Parts of some World War II naval minefields still exist because they are too extensive and expensive to clear. Mines have been employed as offensive or defensive weapons in The minefield, lakes, estuaries, seas, and oceans, but they can also be used as tools of psychological warfare.
Offensive mines are The minefield in enemy waters, outside harbours and across important shipping routes with the aim of sinking both merchant and military vessels. Defensive minefields safeguard key stretches of coast from enemy ships and submarines, forcing them into more easily defended areas, or keeping them away from sensitive ones.
Minefields designed for psychological effect are usually placed on trade routes and are used to stop shipping from reaching an enemy nation. They are often spread thinly, to create an impression of minefields existing across large areas. A single mine inserted strategically on a shipping route can stop maritime movements for days while the entire area is swept.
International law requires nations to declare when they mine an area, to make it easier for civil shipping to avoid the mines. Early use[ edit ] A 14th-century drawn illustration of a naval mine and page description from the Huolongjing Precursors to naval mines were first invented by Han Chinese innovators of Imperial China and were described in thorough detail by the early Ming dynasty artillery officer Jiao Yuin his 14th century military treatise known as the Huolongjing.
This kind of naval mine was loaded in a wooden box, sealed with putty.
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|Minefield | Definition of Minefield by Merriam-Webster||Use[ edit ] Land mines were designed for two main uses: To act as passive area-denial weapons to deny the enemy use of valuable terrain, resources or facilities when active defense of the area is not desirable or possible.|
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General Qi Jiguang made several timed, drifting explosives, to harass Japanese pirate ships. It was used on the Delaware River as a drift mine. Russian naval specialists set more than naval mines, or infernal machines, designed by Moritz von Jacobi and by Immanuel Nobel in the Gulf of Finland during the Crimean War of The mine was tied to the sea bottom by an anchor.
In the summer ofthe production of the mine was approved by the Committee for Mines of the Ministry of War of the Russian Empire. It gradually phased out its direct competitor the Nobel mine on the insistence of Admiral Fyodor Litke.
The Nobel mines were bought from Swedish industrialist Immanuel Nobel who had entered into collusion with Russian head of navy Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov.
Despite their high cost Russian rubles the Nobel mines proved to be faulty, exploding while being laid, failing to explode or detaching from their wires and drifting uncontrollably, at least 70 of them were subsequently disarmed by the British. Inmore Jacobi mines were laid around Krostadt and Lisy Nos.
The Minefield. He was running with his friend from town to town. They were somewhere between Prague and Dresden. He was fourteen. His friend was faster and knew a shortcut through the fields they could take. He said there was lettuce growing in one of them. Diane Thiel's "The Minefield" is a very deep and heartbreaking poem about a man that still struggles with his mind being ravaged by the memories of a war from many years ago. The man years later still speaks of the incident that happened with his friend when he was so young. Once the minefield is set up, divide players into pairs. Create pairs carefully. In each pair, one person will be blindfolded and will be not allowed to see or talk. The other person is allowed to see and talk, but is not allowed to touch the other person or enter the minefield.
British ships did not dare to approach them. A spar torpedo was a mine attached to a long pole and detonated when the ship carrying it rammed another one and withdrew a safe distance. A Harvey torpedo was a type of floating mine towed alongside a ship and was briefly in service in the Royal Navy in the s.
Other "torpedoes" were attached to ships or propelled themselves.
One such weapon called the Whitehead torpedo after its inventor, caused the word "torpedo" to apply to self-propelled underwater missiles as well as to static devices.
These mobile devices were also known as "fish torpedos". The American Civil War of also saw the successful use of mines. After the United States adopted the mine as its primary weapon for coastal defense. In the decade followingMajor Henry Larcom Abbot carried out a lengthy set of experiments to design and test moored mines that could be exploded on contact or be detonated at will as enemy shipping passed near them.
This initial development of mines in the United States took place under the purview of the U. Two mines blew up when the Petropavlovsk struck them near Port Arthursending the holed vessel to the bottom and killing the fleet commander, Admiral Stepan Makarovand most of his crew in the process.
The toll inflicted by mines was not confined to the Russians, however. The Japanese Navy lost two battleships, four cruisers, two destroyers and a torpedo-boat to offensively laid mines during the war.
Most famously, on May 15,the Russian minelayer Amur planted a mine minefield off Port Arthur and succeeded in sinking the Japanese battleships Hatsuse and Yashima. Following the end of the Russo-Japanese War, several nations attempted to have mines banned as weapons of war at the Hague Peace Conference Several mine-laying ships were destroyed when their cargo exploded.
The mines employed were controlled mines, anchored to the bottoms of the harbors and detonated under control from large mine casemates on shore.
During World War Imines were used extensively to defend coasts, coastal shipping, ports and naval bases around the globe. The Germans laid mines in shipping lanes to sink merchant and naval vessels serving Britain.
World War II[ edit ] The towed, electric cables of Double-L, magnetic—mine sweeping gear being deployed behind a Royal Navy minesweeper During World War IIthe U-boat fleet, which dominated much of the battle of the Atlantic, was small at the beginning of the war and much of the early action by German forces involved mining convoy routes and ports around Britain.
Initially, contact mines—requiring a ship to physically strike a mine to detonate it—were employed, usually tethered at the end of a cable just below the surface of the water.A strong advocate of SAP, the author really does not give one the feeling that the advice is truly impartial.
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