See Article History Renaissance architecture, style of architecture, reflecting the rebirth of Classical culturethat originated in Florence in the early 15th century and spread throughout Europe, replacing the medieval Gothic style. There was a revival of ancient Roman forms, including the column and round archthe tunnel vaultand the dome. The basic design element was the order.
English literature of his reign as James I, from tois properly called Jacobean. These years produced a gallery Renaissance writing style authors of genius, some of whom have never been surpassed, and conferred on scores of lesser talents the enviable ability to write with fluency, imagination, and verve.
From one point of view, this sudden renaissance looks radiant, confident, heroic—and belated, but all the more dazzling for its belatedness. Yet, from another point of view, this was a time of unusually traumatic strain, in which English society underwent massive disruptions that transformed it on every front and decisively affected the life of every individual.
In the brief, intense moment in which England assimilated the European Renaissance, the circumstances that made the assimilation possible were already disintegrating and calling into question the newly won certainties, as well as the older truths that they were dislodging.
This doubleness, of new possibilities and new doubts simultaneously apprehended, gives the literature its unrivaled intensity. Real wages hit an all-time low in the s, and social relations were plunged into a state of fluidity from which the merchant and the ambitious lesser gentleman profited at the expense of the aristocrat and the labourer, as satires and comedies current from the s complain.
Behind the Elizabethan vogue for pastoral poetry lies the fact of the prosperity of the enclosing sheep farmer, who sought to increase pasture at the expense of the peasantry. Tudor platitudes about order and degree could Renaissance writing style combat nor survive the challenge posed to rank by these arrivistes.
The position of the crown, politically dominant yet financially insecure, had always been potentially unstable, and, when Charles I lost the confidence of his greater subjects in the s, his authority crumbled.
Intellectual and religious revolution The barely disguised social ferment was accompanied by an intellectual revolution, as the medieval synthesis collapsed before the new science, new religion, and new humanism.
While modern mechanical technologies were pressed into service by the Stuarts to create the scenic wonders of the court masquethe discoveries of astronomers and explorers were redrawing the cosmos in a way that was profoundly disturbing: John Donne, The First Anniversary, The majority of people were more immediately affected by the religious revolutions of the 16th century.
A person in early adulthood at the accession of Elizabeth in would, by her death inhave been vouchsafed an unusually disillusioning insight into the duty owed by private conscience to the needs of the state.
The Tudor church hierarchy was an instrument of social and political control, yet the mid-century controversies over the faith had already wrecked any easy confidence in the authority of doctrines and forms and had taught people to inquire carefully into the rationale of their own beliefs as John Donne does in his third satire [c.
Nor was the Calvinist orthodoxy that cradled most English writers comforting, for it told them that they were corrupt, unfree, unable to earn their own salvations, and subject to heavenly judgments that were arbitrary and absolute. Calvinism deeply affects the world of the Jacobean tragedies, whose heroes are not masters of their fates but victims of divine purposes that are terrifying yet inscrutable.
The race for cultural development The third complicating factor was the race to catch up with Continental developments in arts and philosophy. The Tudors needed to create a class of educated diplomats, statesmen, and officials and to dignify their court by making it a fount of cultural as well as political patronage.
The new learning, widely disseminated through the Erasmian after the humanist Desiderius Erasmus educational programs of such men as John Colet and Sir Thomas Elyotproposed to use a systematic schooling in Latin authors and some Greek to encourage in the social elites a flexibility of mind and civilized serviceableness that would allow enlightened princely government to walk hand in hand with responsible scholarship.
Humanism fostered an intimate familiarity with the classics that was a powerful incentive for the creation of an English literature of answerable dignity.
It fostered as well a practical, secular piety that left its impress everywhere on Elizabethan writing. The Princewritten inwas unavailable in English untilbut as early as the s Gabriel Harveya friend of the poet Edmund Spensercan be found enthusiastically hailing its author as the apostle of modern pragmatism.
The Elizabethan settlement was a compromise; the Tudor pretense that the people of England were unified in belief disguised the actual fragmentation of the old consensus under the strain of change.
It was still possible for Elizabeth to hold these divergent tendencies together in a single, heterogeneous culturebut under her successors they would eventually fly apart. The philosophers speaking for the new century would be Francis Bacon, who argued for the gradual advancement of science through patient accumulation of experiments, and the skeptic Michel de Montaigne his Essays translated from the French by John Florio who denied that it was possible to formulate any general principles of knowledge.
Cutting across all of these was the persistence of popular habits of thought and expression. Both humanism and Puritanism set themselves against vulgar ignorance and folk tradition, but, fortunately, neither could remain aloof for long from the robustness of popular taste.
The language, too, was undergoing a rapid expansion that all classes contributed to and benefited from, sophisticated literature borrowing without shame the idioms of colloquial speech.Renaissance architecture: Renaissance architecture, style of architecture, reflecting the rebirth of Classical culture, that originated in Florence in the early 15th century and spread throughout Europe, replacing the medieval Gothic style.
There was a revival of ancient Roman forms, including the column and round arch, the. American Renaissance: American Renaissance, period from the s roughly until the end of the American Civil War in which American literature, in the wake of the Romantic movement, came of age as an expression of a national spirit.
The literary scene of the period was dominated by a group of New England writers, the. The Renaissance style was inspired by the art and architecture of ancient Rome.
It originated in Italy in the 14th century and gradually spread across the whole of Europe. The new styles of decoration came to England in the 16th century. Overview. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern timberdesignmag.coming in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
English literature - The Renaissance period: – In a tradition of literature remarkable for its exacting and brilliant achievements, the Elizabethan and early Stuart periods have been said to represent the most brilliant century of all.
(The reign of Elizabeth I began in and ended with her death in ; she was succeeded by . Renaissance Literature. The Renaissance in Europe was in one sense an awakening from the long slumber of the Dark Ages. What had been a stagnant, even backsliding kind of society re-invested in the promise of material and spiritual gain.