Rumelhart and McClelland Key Concepts The basic idea of Information processing theory is that the human mind is like a computer or information processor — rather than behaviorist notions that people merely responding to stimuli.
Early Childhood Cognitive Development: By ages 2 to 5 years, most children have developed the skills to focus attention for extended periods, recognize previously encountered information, recall old information, and reconstruct it in the present.
For example, a 4-year-old can remember what she did at Christmas and tell her friend about it when she returns to preschool after the holiday. Between the ages of 2 and 5, long-term memory also begins to form, which is why most people cannot remember anything in their childhood prior to age 2 or 3.
Part of long-term memory involves storing information about the sequence of events during familiar situations as "scripts".
Scripts help children understand, interpret, and predict what will happen in future scenarios. For example, children understand that a visit to the grocery store involves a specific sequences of steps: Dad walks into the store, gets a grocery cart, selects items from the shelves, waits in the check-out line, pays for the groceries, and then loads them into the car.
Children ages 2 through 5 also start to recognize that are often multiple ways to solve a problem and can brainstorm different though sometimes primitive solutions. Between the ages of 5 and 7, children learn how to focus and use their cognitive abilities for specific purposes.
For example, children can learn to pay attention to and memorize lists of words or facts. This skill is obviously crucial for children starting school who need to learn new information, retain it and produce it for tests and other academic activities. Children this age have also developed a larger overall capacity to process information.
This expanding information processing capacity allows young children to make connections between old and new information. For example, children can use their knowledge of the alphabet and letter sounds phonics to start sounding out and reading words.
Metacognition, "the ability to think about thinking", is another important cognitive skill that develops during early childhood. Between ages 2 and 5 years, young children realize that they use their brains to think.
However, their understanding of how a brain works is rather simplistic; a brain is a simply a container much like a toy box where thoughts and memories are stored.
By ages 5 to 7 years, children realize they can actively control their brains, and influence their ability to process and to accomplish mental tasks. As a result, school-age children start to develop and choose specific strategies for approaching a given learning task, monitor their comprehension of information, and evaluate their progress toward completing a learning task.
For example, first graders learn to use a number line or counting on their fingers when they realize that they forgot the answer to an addition or subtraction problem.
Similarly, children who are learning to read can start to identify words i.1A. Theories of Learning Here are some introductory overviews of modern “active learning” theories: • An introduction to theories about Learning & Cognition is Joyce Alexander's overview-summaries of learning theories, behaviorism, cognitive information processing, meaningful reception learning, cognitive development, and constructivism.
Affects reading and related language-based processing skills. The severity of this specific learning disability can differ in each individual but can affect reading fluency, decoding, reading comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and sometimes speech and can exist along with other related disorders.
understand that training underlying information-processing abilities in students with learning disabilities makes sense only if the processing skills share many attributes in common with academic objectives. Learning Strategy and Information-Processing Development: Learning Objectives: Matching: True/False and learning strategies .
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Teachers working with these students must implement strategies when presenting new information to their students, determining what helpful strategies. Miscellaneous Sites. ACT Research Home Page- The ACT group is led by John Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University and is concerned with the ACT theory and architecture of timberdesignmag.com goal of this research is to understand how people acquire and organize knowledge and produce intelligent behavior.