How to carry out a literature review for a dissertation or research paper

Tags Introduction Methodology is perhaps the most challenging and laborious part of research work. This means that your methodology chapter should clearly state whether you chose to use quantitative or qualitative data collection techniques or a mixture of both. You will be required to provide justifications as to why you preferred a certain method over the others.

How to carry out a literature review for a dissertation or research paper

Posted on February 4, by Scott Alexander Philip Tetlock, author of Superforecastinggot famous by studying prediction.

Although this was generally true, he was able to distinguish a small subset of people who were able to do a little better than chance.

Tetlock found that the hedgehogs did worse than the chimp and the foxes did a little better. Cut to the late s. The US intelligence community has just been seriously embarrassed by their disastrous declaration that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.

They set up an Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Agency to try crazy things and see if any of them worked. IARPA approached a bunch of scientists, handed them a list of important world events that might or might not happen, and told them to create some teams and systems for themselves and compete against each other to see who could predict them the best.

Tetlock was one of these scientists, and his entry into the competition was called the Good Judgment Project. The plan was simple: This worked pretty well. This suggests a discontinuity, a natural division into two groups. Two percent of forecasters were in the top two percent.

Anyway, the Good Judgment Project then put these superforecasters on teams with other superforecasters, averaged out their decisions, slightly increased the final confidence levels to represent the fact that it was 60 separate people, all of whom were that confidentand presented that to IARPA as their final answer.

Whale and dolphin behavioural responses to dead conspecifics - ScienceDirect

Having established that this is all pretty neat, Tetlock turns to figuring out how superforecasters are so successful.

First of all, is it just luck? Superforecasters one year tended to remain superforecasters the next. The year-to-year correlation in who was most accurate was 0. This is definitely a real thing. Are superforecasters just really smart? The superforecasters whom Tetlock profiles in his book include a Harvard physics PhD who speaks 6 languages, an assistant math professor at Cornell, a retired IBM programmer data wonk, et cetera.

But the average superforecaster is only at the 80th percentile for IQ — just under And there are a lot of people who are very smart but not very good at predicting.

Are superforecasters just really well-informed about the world? The correlation between well-informedness and accuracy was about the same as the correlation between IQ and accuracy.

None of them are remarkable for spending every single moment behind a newspaper, and none of them had as much data available as the CIA analysts with access to top secret information.

Even when they made decisions based on limited information, they still beat other forecasters. Are superforecasters just really good at math? A lot of them are math PhDs or math professors. The correlation between math skills and accuracy was about the same as all the other correlations.

So what are they really good at? Tetlock concludes that the number one most important factor to being a superforecaster is really understanding logic and probability. Part of it is just understanding the basics.

Superforecasters tend to focus on the specific problem in front of them and break it down into pieces.

How to carry out a literature review for a dissertation or research paper

Or they might break the problem down into pieces: Most interesting, they seem to be partly immune to cognitive bias. The strongest predictor of forecasting ability okay, fine, not by much, it was pretty much the same as IQ and well-informedness and all that — but it was a predictor was the Cognitive Reflection Testwhich includes three questions with answers that are simple, obvious, and wrong.

The test seems to measure whether people take a second to step back from their System 1 judgments and analyze them critically. Superforecasters seem especially good at this. Tetlock cooperated with Daniel Kahneman on an experiment to elicit scope insensitivity in forecasters.

Remember, scope insensitivity is where you give a number-independent answer to a numerical question. For example, how much should an organization pay to save the lives of endangered birds? So it seems you can get people to change their estimate of the value of bird life just by changing the number in the question.

Poor forecasters do the same thing on their predictions.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.

Student write their dissertation paper from our best dissertation writing service online. Help with Writing a Paper Help! Additionally, there are free informative address papers that you are able to down load from the web.

Create instructions of the things you’d love to do in your own search. The scientific study of death across animal taxa—comparative thanatology—investigates how animals respond behaviourally, physiologically and psychologically to dead conspecifics, and the processes behind such responses.

The conclusion chapter can either make or break the grade of your research/dissertation paper. So you should take your time when it comes to choosing the design. Introducing the systematic review. The word “systematic” in relation to a review involves the use of precise methods to gather and assess the results of research publications that (most importantly) minimises bias within the process.

How to carry out a literature review for a dissertation or research paper

The result should be a robust and reliable assimilation of evidence in order to reach a reliable conclusion.

How to carry out a literature review for a dissertation or research paper Part: 2