Origins[ edit ] State Representative John W.
Origins[ edit ] State Representative John W. Butlera Tennessee farmer and head of the World Christian Fundamentals Associationlobbied state legislatures to pass anti-evolution laws.
He succeeded when the Butler Act was passed in Tennessee, on March 25, I'd read in the papers that boys and girls were coming home from school and telling their fathers and mothers that the Bible was all nonsense. Scopes, who had substituted for the regular biology teacher, was charged on May 5,with teaching evolution from a chapter in George William Hunter 's textbook, Civic Biology: Presented in Problemswhich described the theory of evolution, race, and eugenics.
The two sides brought in the biggest legal names in the nation, William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution and Clarence Darrow for the defense, and the trial was followed on radio transmissions throughout the United States.
Hicks at Robinson's Drug Store, convincing them that the controversy of such a trial would give Dayton much needed publicity. According to Robinson, Rappleyea said, "As it is, the law is not enforced. If you win, it will be enforced. If I win, the law will be repealed.
We're game, aren't we? Scopesa Dayton high school science and math teacher. The group asked Scopes to admit to teaching the theory of evolution. Scopes added to the group: Raulston accelerated the convening of the grand jury and " Hickstwo brothers who were local attorneys and friends of Scopes, but the prosecution was ultimately led by Tom Stewarta graduate of Cumberland School of Lawwho later became a U.
Stewart was aided by Dayton attorney Gordon McKenzie, who supported the anti-evolution bill on religious grounds, and described evolution as "detrimental to our morality" and an assault on "the very citadel of our Christian religion".
Wells asking him to join the defense team. Wells replied that he had no legal training in Britain, let alone in America, and declined the offer.
Neala law school professor from Knoxvilleannounced that he would act as Scopes' attorney whether Scopes liked it or not, and he became the nominal head of the defense team.
Bryan had originally been invited by Sue Hicks to become an associate of the prosecution and Bryan had readily accepted, despite the fact he had not tried a case in thirty-six years. As Scopes pointed out to James Presley in the book Center of the Storm, on which the two collaborated: Darrow originally declined, fearing that his presence would create a circus atmosphere, but eventually realized that the trial would be a circus with or without him, and agreed to lend his services to the defense, later stating that he "realized there was no limit to the mischief that might be accomplished unless the country was aroused to the evil at hand".
McKenzie and William Jennings Bryan. Mencken for The Baltimore Sunwhich was also paying part of the defense's expenses.
It was Mencken who provided the trial with its most colorful labels such as the "Monkey Trial" of "the infidel Scopes". It was also the first United States trial to be broadcast on national radio. Principally because of Clarence Darrow, this strategy changed as the trial progressed.
The earliest argument proposed by the defense once the trial had begun was that there was actually no conflict between evolution and the creation account in the Bible; later, this viewpoint would be called theistic evolution.
In support of this claim, they brought in eight experts on evolution. But other than Dr. Maynard Metcalf, a zoologist from Johns Hopkins Universitythe judge would not allow these experts to testify in person.
Instead, they were allowed to submit written statements so that their evidence could be used at the appeal. In response to this decision, Darrow made a sarcastic comment to Judge Raulston as he often did throughout the trial on how he had been agreeable only on the prosecution's suggestions.
Darrow apologized the next day, keeping himself from being found in contempt of court.
Mencken in The presiding judge, John T. Raulston, was accused of being biased towards the prosecution and frequently clashed with Darrow. At the outset of the trial, Raulston quoted Genesis and the Butler Act.
He also warned the jury not to judge the merit of the law which would become the focus of the trial but on the violation of the Act, which he called a 'high misdemeanor. In his conclusion, Malone declared that Bryan's "duel to the death" against evolution should not be made one-sided by a court ruling that took away the chief witnesses for the defense.
Malone promised that there would be no duel because "there is never a duel with the truth. The judge declared that all of the defense testimony on the Bible was irrelevant and should not be presented to the jury which had been excluded during the defense.timberdesignmag.com 21 Feb Page 2 of 54 Introduction This essay is about the conflict between three fundamental legal rights in the USA.
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Install Windows Server , Build a Windows Domain, Domain Controller, Learn DHCP, Install Windows 10, and much more. The Scopes "Monkey" Trial Site Map: Introduction A brief description of the Scopes Trial - the original proceedings, the effective fictionalizing of the event in F.L.
Allen's book Only Yesterday, and the confusion surrounding the play Inherit the timberdesignmag.com a short biography of the author. The contemporary religious controversy, epitomized in the Scopes trial aJ the continuing clamor for creationism as a viable alternative to the theory.