Encountering Deep State Lies. My panel addressed Understanding Zionism: Working on my presentation, I was forced to confront the evolution of my own views on both the corruption of government in the United States and the ability of powerful domestic lobbies to deliberately distort the perception of national interests to benefit foreign countries even when that activity does terrible damage to the U.
History[ edit ] Illustration in a 19th-century book depicting physiognomy. The origins of personality assessment date back to the 18th and 19th centuries, when personality was assessed through phrenologythe measurement of bumps on the human skull, and physiognomywhich assessed personality based on a person's outer appearances.
Based on the lexical hypothesis, Galton estimated the number of adjectives that described personality in the English dictionary  Galton's list was eventually refined by Louis Leon Thurstone to 60 words that were commonly used for describing personality at the time.
The self-report inventory involves administration of many items requiring respondents to introspectively assess their own personality characteristics.
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This is highly subjective, and because of item transparency, such Q-data measures are highly susceptible to motivational and response distortion. An item on a personality questionnaire, for example, might ask respondents to rate the degree to which they agree with the statement "I talk to a lot of different people at parties" on a scale from 1 "strongly disagree" to 5 "strongly agree".
Historically, the most widely used multidimensional personality instrument is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPIa psychopathology instrument originally designed to assess archaic psychiatric nosology.
Norms[ edit ] The meaning of personality test scores are difficult to interpret in a direct sense. For this reason substantial effort is made by producers of personality tests to produce norms to provide a comparative basis for interpreting a respondent's test scores. Common formats for these norms include percentile ranks, z scoressten scoresand other forms of standardised scores.
Test development[ edit ] A substantial amount of research and thinking has gone into the topic of personality test development.
Development of personality tests tends to be an iterative process whereby a test is progressively refined. Test development can proceed on theoretical or statistical grounds. There are three commonly used general strategies: Inductive, Deductive, and Empirical.
Deductive assessment construction begins by selecting a domain or construct to measure. Measures created through deductive methodology are equally valid and take significantly less time to construct compared to inductive and empirical measures.
The clearly defined and face valid questions that result from this process make them easy for the person taking the assessment to understand. Although subtle items can be created through the deductive process,  these measure often are not as capable of detecting lying as other methods of personality assessment construction.
The items created for an inductive measure to not intended to represent any theory or construct in particular. Once the items have been created they are administered to a large group of participants.
This allows researchers to analyze natural relationships among the questions and label components of the scale based upon how the questions group together.
Several statistical techniques can be used to determine the constructs assessed by the measure.
Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are two of the most common data reduction techniques that allow researchers to create scales from responses on the initial items. It also may allow for the development of subtle items that prevent test takers from knowing what is being measured and may represent the actual structure of a construct better than a pre-developed theory.
One of the central goals of empirical personality assessment is to create a test that validly discriminates between two distinct dimensions of personality. Empirical tests can take a great deal of time to construct. In order to ensure that the test is measuring what it is purported to measure, psychologists first collect data through self- or observer reports, ideally from a large number of participants.
Self-reports are commonly used. In an observer-report, a person responds to the personality items as those items pertain to someone else. To produce the most accurate results, the observer needs to know the individual being evaluated. Combining the scores of a self-report and an observer report can reduce error, providing a more accurate depiction of the person being evaluated.
Self- and observer-reports tend to yield similar results, supporting their validity. The second party observes how the target of the observation behaves in certain situations e.
The observations can take place in a natural e. Direct observation can help identify job applicants e.The United States of America (more commonly known as America, United States, the States, or simply U.S.
or U.S.A.) is a large and very diverse country located in North America.
It shares land borders with Canada and Mexico, and a maritime border with Cuba along the Florida Strait, and Russia in. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from timberdesignmag.com While the Israeli lobby has been a major influence in pushing America in a militaristic direction, it has mostly been pushing against an open door.
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Critical thinking can stop lies ruining lives. President Donald Trump is interviewed by Reuters in the Oval Office at the White House in Washington, February Sports journalists and bloggers covering NFL, MLB, NBA, NHL, MMA, college football and basketball, NASCAR, fantasy sports and more. News, photos, mock drafts, game.