Edit Pre-Columbian Further information: Settlement of the Americas, Paleo-Indians, and Pre-Columbian era map showing the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites Clovis theory. According to the still-debated Settlement of the Americas, a migration of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which formerly connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait.
It has been suggested that their culture contributed to political thinking during the development of the later United States government. Their system of affiliation was a kind of federation, different from the strong, centralized European monarchies.
The Iroquois invaded and attacked tribes in the Ohio River area of present-day Kentucky and claimed the hunting grounds. By the midth century, they had resettled in their historical lands in present-day KansasNebraskaArkansas and Oklahoma.
The Osage warred with Caddo -speaking Native Americans, displacing them in turn by the midth century and dominating their new historical territories.
It hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda. After European exploration and colonization of the Americas revolutionized how the Old and New Worlds perceived themselves.
The subsequent European colonists in North America often rationalized their expansion of empire with the assumption that they were saving a barbaric, pagan world by spreading Christian civilization.
They had long-established spiritual and religious traditions and theological beliefs. What developed during the colonial years and since has been a syncretic Catholicism that absorbed and reflected indigenous beliefs; the religion changed in New Spain.
Impact on native populations[ edit ] Main article: Some scholars characterize the treatment of Native Americans by the US as genocide or genocidal whilst others dispute this characterization.
While it is difficult to determine exactly how many Natives lived in North America before Columbus,  estimates range from a low of 2. Inthe American anthropologist Henry F.
Dobyns published studies estimating the original population to have been 10 to 12 million. Byhe increased his estimates to 18 million.
Smallpox epidemics often immediately followed European exploration and sometimes destroyed entire village populations.
In the years following the arrival of the Spanish to the Americas, large disease epidemics depopulated large parts of the eastern United States in the 15th century. The disease swept through Mohawk villages, reaching the Onondaga at Lake Ontario byand the lands of the western Iroquois byas it was carried by Mohawk and other Native Americans who traveled the trading routes.
Native California Population, according to Cook Census reportedNative Americans in California. For the next 80 to years, smallpox and other diseases devastated native populations in the region. The numbers of indigenes decreased more rapidly after California ceased to be a Spanish colony, especially during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th see chart on the right.
Smallpox epidemics in — and — brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians. It was the first federal program created to address a health problem of Native Americans.
Sheep, pigs, horses, and cattle were all Old World animals that were introduced to contemporary Native Americans who never knew such animals.Definition. Racism is defined as the predication of decisions and policies on considerations of race for the purpose of subordinating a racial group and maintaining control over that group.
Organizations and institutions that practice racism discriminate against and marginalize a class of people who share a common racial designation.
American Policy Towards Native Americans. America's policies towards native Americans has been filled with broken promises and lies. It seems clear that for a good portion of our history the following words clearly did not apply to the native American: "All men are created free and equal, that they are endowed with certain inalienable rights and that .
Spanish treatment of the Native Americans was poor. Spanish explorers considered the natives inferior. Consequently, they forcibly converted natives to Christianity, confined them to slavery and murdered them.
In , Christopher Columbus arrived on the island of Hispaniola. Upon encountering. United States, officially United States of America, abbreviated U.S.
or U.S.A., byname America, country in North America, a federal republic of 50 states. Besides the 48 conterminous states that occupy the middle latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of Alaska, at the northwestern extreme of North America, and the island state of Hawaii, in the mid-Pacific Ocean.
Native Americans in the Southwestern United States, kinship (m corn domesticated by indigenous peoples about 10k years ago, b infectious disease (virus), introduced by colonists to new wor.
When the new United States found itself responsible for Indian policy, its citizens often continued to view the Native Americans as defeated enemies.
It is telling that in , the Congress gave authority for Indian relations to a division of the War Department.