To bring forth, as young; to yean. A lamb just brought forth; a yeanling. The organ of hearing; the external ear.
Like every other increase in the productiveness of labour, machinery is intended to cheapen commodities, and, by shortening that portion of the working-day, in which the labourer works for himself, to lengthen the other portion that he gives, without an equivalent, to the capitalist.
In short, it is a means for producing surplus-value. In manufacture, the revolution in the mode of production begins with the labour-power, in modern industry it begins with the instruments of labour.
Our first inquiry then is, how the instruments of labour are converted from tools into machines, or what is the difference between a machine and the implements of a handicraft? We are only concerned here with striking and general characteristics; for epochs in the history of society are no more separated from each other by hard and fast lines of demarcation, than are geological epochs.
Mathematicians and mechanicians, and in this they are followed by a few English economists, call a tool a simple machine, and a machine a complex tool. From the economic standpoint this explanation is worth nothing, because the historical element is wanting.
Another explanation of the difference between tool and machine is that in the case of a tool, man is the motive power, while the motive power of a machine is something different from man, as, for instance, an animal, water, wind, and so on.
Nay, this very loom, though a tool when worked by hand, would, if worked by steam, be a machine. When inJohn Wyatt brought out his spinning machine, and began the industrial revolution of the 18th century, not a word did he say about an ass driving it instead of a man, and yet this part fell to the ass.
The motor mechanism is that which puts the whole in motion. The transmitting mechanism, composed of fly-wheels, shafting, toothed wheels, pullies, straps, ropes, bands, pinions, and gearing of the most varied kinds, regulates the motion, changes its form where necessary, as for instance, from linear to circular, and divides and distributes it among the working machines.
These two first parts of the whole mechanism are there, solely for putting the working machines in motion, by means of which motion the subject of labour is seized upon and modified as desired. The tool or working machine is that part of the machinery with which the industrial revolution of the 18th century started.
And to this day it constantly serves as such a starting-point, whenever a handicraft, or a manufacture, is turned into an industry carried on by machinery. On a closer examination of the working machine proper, we find in it, as a general rule, though often, no doubt, under very altered forms, the apparatus and tools used by the handicraftsman or manufacturing workman; with this difference, that instead of being human implements, they are the implements of a mechanism, or mechanical implements.
Either the entire machine is only a more or less altered mechanical edition of the old handicraft tool, as, for instance, the power-loom,  or the working parts fitted in the frame of the machine are old acquaintances, as spindles are in a mule, needles in a stocking-loom, saws in a sawing-machine, and knives in a chopping machine.
The distinction between these tools and the body proper of the machine, exists from their very birth; for they continue for the most part to be produced by handicraft, or by manufacture, and are afterwards fitted into the body of the machine, which is the product of machinery.
Whether the motive power is derived from man, or from some other machine, makes no difference in this respect.
From the moment that the tool proper is taken from man, and fitted into a mechanism, a machine takes the place of a mere implement.
The difference strikes one at once, even in those cases where man himself continues to be the prime mover. The number of implements that he himself can use simultaneously, is limited by the number of his own natural instruments of production, by the number of his bodily organs.
In Germany, they tried at first to make one spinner work two spinning-wheels, that is, to work simultaneously with both hands and both feet.
This was too difficult. Later, a treddle spinning-wheel with two spindles was invented, but adepts in spinning, who could spin two threads at once, were almost as scarce as two-headed men.
The Jenny, on the other hand, even at its very birth, spun with spindles, and the stocking-loom knits with many thousand needles at once.The Government and the Great Depression by Chris Edwards, Director of Tax Policy, Cato Institute finally beginning to recover.3 Real output only regained its 3 U.S.
Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, April , p.
I started using Twitter the day the CA3blog site crashed. In September of last year, I wrote something provocative here about a book by Judge Posner (“batshit crazy”) that got a bazillion hits from readers on Twitter, enough hits to bring down the blog’s website.
Until that day I’d been a proud Twitter hold-out, but crashing my humble blog got my attention. The causes of the Great Depression in the early 20th century have been extensively discussed by economists and remain a matter of active debate.
They are part of the larger debate about economic timberdesignmag.com specific economic events that took place during the Great Depression are well established.
There was an initial stock market crash that triggered a "panic sell-off" of assets. Historical analysis of Economy in The Great Depression. The Great Depression through the lens of Economy.
timberdesignmag.com Words Beginning With E / Words Starting with E Words whose second letter is E. E The fifth letter of the English alphabet.. E E is the third tone of the model diatonic scale.E/ (E flat) is a tone which is intermediate between D and E.
Brief definitions of obscure words starting with the letter T.