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The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the Roman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean area after the loss of the western provinces to Germanic kingdoms in the 5th century.
Although it lost some of its eastern lands to the Muslims in the 7th century, it lasted until Constantinople—the new capital founded by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great in —fell to the Ottoman Turks in The empire was seriously weakened in when, as a result of the Fourth Crusade, its lands were partitioned and Constantinople captured, but until then it had remained a powerful centralized state, with a common Christian faith, an efficient administration, and a shared Greek culture.
This culture, already Christianized in the 4th and 5th centuries, was maintained and transmitted by an educational system that was inherited from the Greco-Roman past and based on the study and imitation of Classical Greek literature.
Stages of education There were three stages of education. The basic skills of reading and writing were taught by the elementary-school masteror grammatistes, whose pupils generally ranged from 6 or 7 to 10 years of age. The secondary-school master, or grammatikos, supervised the study and appreciation of Classical literature and of literary Greek —from which the spoken Greek of everyday life differed more and more in the course of time—and Latin until the 6th century.
His pupils ranged in age from 10 to 15 or Speaking style was deemed more important than content or original thinking. An optional fourth stage was provided by the teacher of philosophywho introduced pupils to some of the topics of ancient philosophy, often by reading and discussing works of Plato or Aristotle.
Rhetoric and philosophy formed the main content of higher education. Literacy was therefore much more widespread than in western Europeat least until the 12th century. Secondary education was confined to the larger cities. Pupils desiring higher education almost always had to go to Constantinoplewhich became the cultural centre of the empire after the loss to the Muslim Arabs of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt in the 7th century.
Monasteries sometimes had schools in which young novices were educated, but they did not teach lay pupils.
Girls did not normally attend schools, but the daughters of the upper classes were often educated by private tutors. Many women were literate, and some—such as the hymnographer Kasia 9th century and the historian-princess Anna Comnena —c.
Elementary education Elementary-school pupils were taught to read and write individual letters first, then syllables, and finally short texts, often passages from the Psalms. They probably also learned simple arithmetic at this stage. Teachers had a humble social status and depended on the fees paid by parents for their livelihood.
They usually held classes in their own homes or on church porches but were sometimes employed as private tutors by wealthy households.
They had no assistants and used no textbooks.
Teaching methods emphasized memorization and copying exercises, reinforced by rewards and punishments. Secondary education The secondary-school teacher taught the grammar and vocabulary of Classical and ecclesiastical Greek literature from the Hellenistic and Roman periods and explained the elements of Classical mythology and history that were necessary for the study of a limited selection of ancient Greek texts, mainly poetrybeginning with Homer.
The most commonly used textbook was the brief grammar by Dionysius Thrax; numerous and repetitive later commentaries on the book were also frequently used. From the 9th century on, these books were sometimes supplemented with the Canons of Theognostosa collection of brief rules of orthography and grammar.
These were specially written by a teacher to illustrate points of grammar or style. From the early 14th century on, much use was also made of erotemata, systematic collections of questions and answers on grammar that the pupil learned by heart.
Secondary schools often had more than one teacher, and the older pupils were often expected to help teach their juniors. Schools of this kind had little institutional continuityhowever. The most lasting schools were those conducted in churches. Many Byzantine handbooks of rhetoric survive from all periods.
They are often anonymous and always derivative, mostly based directly or indirectly on the treatises of Hermogenes of Tarsus late 2nd century ce. There is little innovation in the theory of rhetoric they expound. After studying models, pupils went on to compose and deliver speeches on various general topics.
Until the early 6th century there was a flourishing school of Neoplatonic philosophy in Athens, but it was repressed or abolished in because of the active paganism of its professors.
A similar but Christian school in Alexandria survived until the Arab conquest of Egypt in In the 11th century, however, there was a renewal of interest in the Greek philosophical tradition, and many commentaries on works of Aristotle were composed, evidently for use in teaching.
In the early 15th century the philosopher George Gemistos Plethon revived interest in Plato, who until then had been neglected for Aristotle.
All philosophical teaching in the Byzantine world was concerned with the explanation of texts rather than with the analysis of problems.
Because higher education provided learned and articulate personnel for the sophisticated bureaucracies of state and church, it was often supported and controlled officially, although private education always existed as well.
There were officially appointed teachers in Constantinople in the 4th century, and in the emperor Theodosius II established professorships of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy.
However, these probably did not survive the great crisis of the Arab and Slav invasions of the 7th century.
In the 9th century, the School of Magnaura—an institution of higher learning—was founded by imperial decree.Ancient history of Bengal shows that Bangladesh is the only country in the Indian-Subcontinent that accepted several religions but the root of the social philosophy was the ancient "Kuamo Society" that accepted god as a human being (Mukhopadhya, ).
About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. More. Britain is the common name for the sovereign state of the United Kingdom, the political entity comprising England, Wales, Scotland (which make up the island of Great Britain) and Northern Ireland.
The ambition of universal literacy in Europe was a reform born of the Enlightenment. We have already pointed out that Northwest Europe made significant improvements in literacy in the period Greek literature - Byzantine literature: Byzantine literature may be broadly defined as the Greek literature of the Middle Ages, whether written in the territory of the Byzantine Empire or outside its borders.
By late antiquity many of the classical Greek genres, such as drama and choral lyric poetry, had long been obsolete, and all Greek literature affected to some degree an archaizing.
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