Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and government officials in New York City. He became a lawyer and joined the New York Committee of Correspondence and organized opposition to British rule.
United States statesman and chief justice Written By: He established important judicial precedents as the first chief justice of the United States —95 and negotiated the Jay Treaty ofwhich settled major grievances with Great Britain and promoted commercial prosperity.
Jay deplored the growing estrangement between the colonies and the mother country, fearing that independence might stir up violence and mob rule. Nevertheless, once the revolution was launched, he became one of its staunchest supporters. He helped assure the approval of the Declaration of Independence in New York, where he was a member of the provincial Congress.
In Jay was appointed minister plenipotentiary to Spain, which had joined France in openly supporting the revolutionaries against Britain. His mission—to borrow money and to gain access to the Mississippi River—proved abortive, and he was sent in May to join Benjamin Franklin in Paris as joint negotiator for peace with Great Britain.
In undercover talks with the British, he won surprisingly liberal terms, which were later included essentially intact in the Treaty of Paris Sept. On his return from abroad, Jay found that Congress had elected him secretary for foreign affairs — Frustrated by the limitations on his powers in that office, he became convinced that the nation needed a more strongly centralized government than was provided for by the Articles of Confederationand he plunged into the fight for ratification of the new federal Constitution, framed in Using the pseudonym Publius, he collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison by writing five essays for The Federalist —the classic defense of the new governmental structure.
His most notable case was Chisholm v. Georgia, in which Jay and the court affirmed the subordination of the states to the federal government. Unfavourable reaction to the decision led to adoption of the Eleventh Amendmentdenying federal courts authority in suits by citizens against a state.
In Washington sent Jay as a special envoy to Great Britain to help avert war over accumulated grievances. The commercial agreementcalled the Jay Treaty November 19aroused a storm of protest among the Jeffersonian Republicanswho denounced it as a sellout by pro-British Federalists.
Mobs burned Jay in effigy, and opponents denounced him as a traitor.
Before the negotiations, Jay at one time had been considered a leading candidate to succeed Washington, but the unpopular treaty ruined whatever chances he had for the presidency.
New York Federalists, however, elected him governor —an office from which he retired to spend the remainder of his life on his farm. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:John Jay. 1st Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and President of the American Bible Society "By conveying the Bible to people thus circumstanced, we certainly do them a most interesting timberdesignmag.com: Dec 12, Short Biography.
John Jay (December 23, (December 12, OS) – May 17, ) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the United States (–95).
John Jay Politician John Jay (December 12, – May 17, ) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the United States (–95).Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and government officials in New York timberdesignmag.com: Dec 12, John Jay: John Jay, a Founding Father of the United States who served the new nation in both law and diplomacy.
He established important judicial precedents as the first chief justice of the United States (–95) and negotiated the Jay Treaty of , which settled major grievances with Great Britain and. The Secretary of State is in charge of defining and implementing U.S.
foreign policy. While that role has weakened some over the past 50 years, a mere roll call of illustrious past Secretaries of State invokes the position's importance.
Washington expressed the hope that his ratification of the Jay Treaty would provide America with peace and the time to become a prosperous and powerful nation. An important Federalist figure during the early days of the American republic, John Jay was also a close political ally of George Washington Employees: